About

About Gracillariidae

The Gracillariidae is one the largest family of primitive moths (Lepidoptera) with a wingspan varying from 4-16 mm. Gracillariid moths are generally distributed throughout the world except Antarctica, and they are more numerous in tropical areas. The larvae of most Gracillariidae species are internal feeders on live plant tissue with a tendency to olygophagy or monophagy. Many species of Gracillariidae are serious pests of agricultural and ornamental plants. The phytophagous habits made some species of Gracillariidae of economic importance. Just during the last decade the pest species on the horse chestnut tree Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić and Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton on the lemon tree became perhaps the most studied lepidopterous species ever. Many other Gracillariidae species are pests of agricultural and ornamental plants feeding on 106 different plant families. Furthermore, some Gracillariidae are known as fast spreading invasive species. However, the taxonomic information on this group of mining insects is scattered in over more than 4000 literature sources. 82 museums and scientific institutions worldwide house the types of Gracillariidae in their scientific collections.

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Objective(s)

The main objective of this searchable website is to make all relevant information on every Gracillariidae species hitherto globally known, accessible to any user in a broad sense.

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Structure and how to use the website

The website provides the information on:

  • the current taxonomic status of every Gracillariidae genus and species
  • bibliographical reference to the original description
  • synonyms
  • type locality of species
  • availability of type specimens and their depository
  • geographical distribution
  • larval host plant(s)
  • parasitoids

The sequence of genera and species within the genera is alphabetical to enable the user to easily retrieve the necessary information.

Vári (1961) used the term "Metallotype" to indicate the first specimen of the opposite sex to the holotype, when this sex was unknown at the time of the description. Although not recognized by the ICZN, we retain this term in the present website, as it may give extra information during future taxonomic studies.

All the information can be queried through a filter system. By selecting names from the scroll down menu for the individual cells, the user can filter out the required information.

All the presented information is cross-referenced to the relevant publications.

Names in black are valid, names in red indicate synonyms or unavailable names.

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Milestones

1758Linnaeus described the first Gracillariid species: Tinea rajella (currently: Phyllonorycter rajella).
1912Meyrick listed the global Gracillariidae for the first time in the 6th issue of Lepidopterorum Catalogus.
2005De Prins & De Prins published the second global Gracillariidae checklist.
2006De Prins & De Prins an online dataset of Global Gracillariidae was launched.

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Links to other databases

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How to cite the Global Taxonomic Database of Gracillariidae

Utmost care was taken that the data incorporated in the database are correct. Persons retrieving information from this website for their own research or for applied aspects such as pest control programmes, should acknowledge the usage of data from this website in the following format:

De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. 2016. Global Taxonomic Database of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera). World Wide Web electronic publication (http://www.gracillariidae.net) [date of accession*]

* Please give the precise date you used this website

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Unplaced species

confectella Walker, 1864; "Gracilaria ? confectella." — Walker, F., 1864: 856. Type locality: [Australia], Moreton Bay. Type specimen(s): 1 type, "From Mr. Diggles' collection" (gender not stated). Distribution: Australia (see Walker, 1864: 856). Present taxonomic status unknown.

delicatulella Walker, 1864; "Gracilaria [sic] delicatulella." — Walker, F., 1864: 856. Type locality: [Australia], Moreton Bay. Type specimen(s): 1 type, "From Mr. Diggles' collection" (gender not stated). Distribution: Australia (see Walker, 1864: 856). Present taxonomic status unknown.

fennicella Hering, 1924; "Phyllonorycter fennicella Mart. Hering, nov. spec." — Hering, M., 1924: 78-79. Type locality: Finland, Esbo. Type specimen(s): not stated (only ♀ mentioned), described after 2 specimens ex coll. V. Karvonen (not found in that collection, J. Karvonen, pers. comm.). Larval hostplant(s): probably Salix sp. (see M. Hering 1924: 78). Distribution: Finland (see M. Hering 1924: 78-79). Present taxonomic status unknown. Probably a junior subjective synonym of Lithocolletis viminetorum Stainton, 1854 or Lithocolletis salictella Zeller, 1846.

graeseriella Sorhagen, 1900; "Lithocolletis Graeseriella n. sp." — Sorhagen, L., 1900: 212; pl. 1, fig. 5. Type locality: [Germany], Eppendorfer Moor, SW of Dresden. Type specimen(s): 1 specimen (gender not stated). Larval hostplant(s): Salix repens L. (see Sorhagen 1900: 213). Distribution: Germany (see Sorhagen 1900: 212). The identity of this species remains questionable (see Davis & Deschka 2001: 58). It might be a synonym of Lithocolletis quinqueguttella Stainton, 1851.

italica Herrich-Schäffer, 1855; "[Lithocolletis] Italica Nic." — Herrich-Schäffer, G. A. W., 1855: 335, nr. 1054. Type locality: Italy. Type specimen(s): 1 specimen (gender not stated). Distribution: Italy (see Herrich-Schäffer 1855: 335). Present taxonomic status unknown.

jyngipennella Heydenreich, 1851; "[Ornix] Jyngipennella Z." — Heydenreich, G. H., 1851: 90. Nomen nudum. Unavailable name.

lativitella Sorhagen, 1900; "Lithocolletis lativittella n. sp." — Sorhagen, L., 1900: 211-212; pl. 1, fig. 1. Type locality: [Germany], Hamburg, Winterhude. Type specimen(s): Not stated. Larval hostplant(s): Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz var. scandinavica (see Sorhagen 1900: 212); Pyrus scandinavica (HOSTS http://internt.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/research-curation/projects/hostplants/index.dsml). Distribution: Germany (see Sorhagen 1900: 211-212). Present taxonomic status unknown. It might be a synonym of Tinea lantanella Schrank, 1802.

norvegicella Strand, 1919; "Lithocolletis norvegicella Strand n. sp." — Strand, E., 1919: 121-123. Type locality: Norway, Nordland, Ranen, Hemnesberget. Type specimen(s): 1 specimen (gender not stated). Distribution: Norway (see Strand 1919: 121-123). Present taxonomic status unknown.

pistaciella Rondani, 1876; "Gracillaria Sp. — pistaciella n." — Rondani, C: 21-22, figs, 6, 7, 9, 10. Type locality: [Italy]. Type specimen(s): 1 specimen (gender not stated). Larval hostplant(s): Pistacia terebinthus L. (see Rondani 1876: 21). Distribution: Italy. Perhaps not Gracillariidae (see Chrétien 1910: 272), species insertae sedis. According to Sattler (1982) a distinct species in Gracillariidae.

quercella Müller-Rutz, 1934; "Ornix quercella spec. n." — Müller-Rutz, J., 1934: 123; pl. 1, figs. 9, 9a. Type locality: [Switzerland], Tessin, Mendrisio. Type specimen(s): 1♂. Larval hostplant(s): Not stated, probably bred from a mine on Quercus sp. (see Müller-Rutz 1934: 123). Distribution: Switzerland (see Müller-Rutz 1934: 123). Present taxonomic status unknown.

sessilifoliella Hering, 1957; "Phyllonorycter sessilifoliella Hering, 1957" — Leraut, P., 1997: 96, nr. 580. We have not been able to retrieve any description of this species. It was mentioned from the south of France, where Buvat was said to have reared it on Quercus sp. (see Leraut 1997: 313, note 41). Nomen nudum. Unavailable name.

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Fossil species

Gracillariites Kozlov, 1987; "Gracillariites Kozlov, gen. nov." — Kozlov, M. V., 1987(4): 67-68. Type species: Gracillariites lithuanicus Kozlov, 1987. By original designation. Fossil in Eocene Amber (Lithuania).

Gracillariites lithuanicus Kozlov, 1987; "Gracillariites lithuanicus Kozlov, sp. nov." — Kozlov, M. V., 1987: 68, fig. 5a. Type locality: Lithuania, Eocene amber. Type specimen(s): Amber, Amber museum (Lithuania, Palanga) nr. Ar-9983. Distribution: Lithuania (see Kozlov. 1987: 68).

Gracillariites mixtus Kozlov, 1987; "Gracillariites mixtus Kozlov, sp. nov." — Kozlov, M. V., 1987: 68, fig. 5b-c. Type locality: Baltic States, Eocene amber. Type specimen(s): Amber, coll. K. M. Sadilenko, nr. 6-1-1.Distribution: Baltic States (see Kozlov. 1987: 68).


Furthermore, some fossils are known of mines caused by unnamed gracillariid species: probably a Acrocercops sp. on Quercus consimilis Newb. (upper Miocene), U.S.A., Oregon, Trout Creek (see Opler 1973: 1321).

Caloptilia sp. probably on a Quercus leaf (Miocene), U.S.A., Idaho, Latah Formation (see Lewis 1969: 1210-1211, Opler 1973: 1322).

Cameraria sp. on Lithocarpus and Quercus simulata Knowlt. (middle to upper Miocene), U.S.A., Idaho, Thorn Creek (see Opler 1973: 1321).

Phyllonorycter sp. on an unidentified fossil leaf (upper Eocene), Canada, British Columbia, White Lake Basin (see Freeman 1965: 1069).

A leaf mine resembling Phyllocnistis has been reported on fossil Cedrela leaves from the early Eocene in the Sheridan Pass area southwest of Dubois, Wyoming, U.S.A. (see Hickey & Hodges 1975: 718).

phyllocnistine leaf mines on a magnoliid dicot from the Dakota Formation of Kansas and Nebraska (U.S.A.) that date to the Early Cenomian (97 m.y.a.) (see Davis 1994: 65-66).

Phyllonorycter sp. on Quercus hanibalii Dorf (late middle Miocene), U.S.A., Nevada, Cedar Mountains, Upper Goldyke (see Opler 1973: 1321).

Phyllonorycter sp. on Populus trichocarpa var. ingrata (Jeps.) Parish (upper Miocene), U.S.A., Nevada, Stewart Valley (see Opler 1973: 1321).

Several fossils belonging to cf. Acrocercops, cf. Caloptilia, cf. Phyllonorycter, genus insertae sedis and questionably placed taxa can be consulted in Sonh, J.-C., Labandeira, C., Davis, D. & Mitter, C. 2012. An annotated catalogue of fossil and subfossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Holometabola) of the world. Zootaxa 3286: 1– 132. Available from http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03286p132.pdf

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Taxa transferred to other families

acinacephora Turner, 1947; "Epicephala acinacephora n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 72. Type locality: Australia, Queensland, Toowoomba. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae (see Edwards & Nielsen 1996: 106).

agrapha Turner, 1947; "Lithocolletis agrapha n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 71. Type locality: Australia, Queensland, Milmerran. Transferred to Elachistidae (see Nielsen 1996: 96).

arenosella Walker, 1864; "Gracilaria [sic] arenosella." — Walker, F., 1864: 857. Type locality: New Zealand, [Auckland], "Presented by Col. Bolton". Transferred to Batrachedridae. Present taxonomic status: Batrachedra arenosella (Walker, 1864) (see Dugdale 1988: 70).

auroguttella Stephens, 1834; "[Glyphipteryx] Auroguttella." —Stephens, J. F., 1834-1835: 274, nr. 9. Type locality: [United Kingdom]. A junior subjective synonym of Mompha miscella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) (Momphidae). Has been misidentified as the "real" Euspilapteryx auroguttella Stephens, 1835 by several authors e.g. Wocke 1861: 120, 1871: 311, and Rebel 1901b: 208.

convolvulella Fologne, 1860; "Gracilaria [sic] convolvulella" — Fologne, E., 1860: 86-87. Type locality: [Belgium, Brabant], Brussels. Transferred to Bedelliidae as a junior subjective synonym of Bedellia somnulentella (Zeller, 1847) (see Triberti 1998a: 172). Remark: "convolvulella" has also been used as a manuscript name of Staudinger for the species now known as Parornix maura Triberti, 1998 (Triberti 1998a: 172).

Exala Meyrick, 1912; "Exala gen. nov." — Meyrick, E., 1912: 4 (key), 24. Type species: Gracillaria strassenella Enderlein, 1903. By monotypy. Exala was tentatively included in the Lithocolletidae, now Gracillariidae, by Fletcher, 1929, Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture, India (Entomology) 11: 95. It was transferred to the Tineidae (as a junior subjective synonym of Opogona Zeller, 1853) by Davis (1978: 13) (see Nye & Fletcher 1991: 127).

falcatella Stainton, 1859; "Gracillaria ? falcatella, n. sp." — Stainton, H. T., 1859a: 121. Type locality: [India], Calcutta. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae. Present taxonomic status: Anatrachyntis falcatella (Stainton, 1859) (see Sinev 2002: 56).

formosella Legrand, 1965. "Lithocolletis formosella n. sp." — Legrand, H., 1965: 42; pl. 3, fig. 1. Type locality: Seychelles, Mahé Island, Beau Vallon. Type specimens: Holotype ♂, MNHN; Allotype ♀, MNHN; Paratypes 6♂ and 1♀, MNHN. Transferred to Glyphipterigidae by De Prins & De Prins (2005: 389). Vári (in 1978) put a label under the holotype: "Euprophantis formosella (Legrand, 1965) — Glyphipterigidae", but did not publish this new combination. Present taxonomic status: Euprophantis formosella (Legrand, 1965).

frontella Walker, 1864; "Gracilaria [sic] frontella." — Walker, F., 1864: 856-857. Type locality: New Zealand, [Auckland]. Tentatively synonymized with Vanicela disjunctella Walker, 1864 (Agonoxenidae) by Dugdale (1988: 70).

luxuriosa Meyrick, 1911; "Cuphodes luxuriosa, n. sp." — Meyrick, E., 1911c: 285-286. Type locality: [Seychelles], Mahé, Cascade Estate, 1000 ft, and Silhouette, Mare aux Cochons plateau and south side of Mont Pot-à-eau, 1000-1500 ft. Type specimens: 9 syntypes (♂ and ♀), BMNH. Transferred to Stathmopodidae by S. Sinev in De Prins & De Prins (2005: 390). Present generic combination: Thylacosceloides luxuriosa (Meyrick, 1911).

malivorella Matsumura, 1906; "Lithocolletis Malivorella Mats." — Matsumura, S., 1906: 25. Nomen nudum in Lyonetiidae. See Kuroko (1964: 24).

nidificansella Packard, 1869; "Lithocolletis nidificansella" — Packard, A. S., 1869: 354; pl. 8, figs. 19, 19a. Type locality: [U.S.A.]. Transferred to Lyonetiidae (see Chambers 1878b: 112).

Palumbina Rondani, 1876; "Palumbina" — Rondani, C., 1876: 22. Type species: Palumbina terebintella Rondani, 1876, ibidem 8: 23, by monotypy. Palumbina was established in the Gracillariidae but has subsequently been transferred to the Gelechiidae by Sattler (1982: 25).

peratocapna Turner, 1947; "Acrocercops peratocapna n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 73. Type locality: Australia, North Queensland, Kuranda. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae (see Edwards & Nielsen 1996: 106).

pistaciella Rondani, 1876; "Gracillaria Sp. — pistaciella n." — Rondani, C., 1876: 21-22, figs, 6, 7, 9, 10. Type locality: [Italy]. Probably not Gracillariidae (see Chrétien 1910: 272), species insertae sedis. According to Sattler (1982) a distinct species in Gracillariidae.

plumbilinea Diakonoff, 1955; "Acrocercops plumbilinea spec. nov." — Diakonoff, A., 1955: 91-92, fig. 797. Type locality: [Papua New Guinea], Bernhard Camp, 50 m. Type specimen: Holotype ♂, genitalia slide D1074, RNHL. Transferred to Agonoxenidae by S. Sinev in De Prins & De Prins (2005: 390). Present generic combination: Zaratha plumbilinea (Diakonoff, 1955).

rhicnodes Turner, 1947; "Parectopa rhicnodes n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 74. Type locality: Australia, Queensland, Brisbane. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae (see Edwards & Nielsen 1996: 106).

rubella Blanchard, 1852; "Elachista rubella" — Blanchard, E., In: Gay, C., 1852: 110. Type locality: Chile, Valdivia. Type specimens: Not stated. Transferred to Momphidae by S. Sinev in De Prins & De Prins (2005: 391). Present generic combination: Mompha rubella (Blanchard, 1852).

scythrodes Turner, 1947; "Lithocolletis scythrodes n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 71. Type locality: South Australia, Mt. Lofty. Transferred to Elachistidae (see Nielsen 1996: 96).

spilota Turner, 1947; "Phyllocnistis spilota n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 71-72. Type locality: Australia, Queensland, Toowoomba. Transferred to Gelechiidae (see Edwards 1996: 114).

strassenella Enderlein, 1903; "Gracilaria [sic] Strassenella nov. spec." — Enderlein, G., 1903: 251-252, figs. 22-25, 27-28, 30. Type locality: New Amsterdam Island. Transferred to Tineidae (Hieroxestinae), present generic combination: Hieroxestis strassenella (Enderlein, 1903) (see Vári 1961: xiv).

taxella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855; "[Gracilaria] Taxella m." — Herrich-Schäffer, G. A. W., 1855: 289, nr 886. Type locality: [Switzerland], Zürich. A junior subjective synonym of Zelleria hepariella Stainton, 1849 (Yponomeutidae), synonymized by E. Hering (1891: 101).

taxi Frey, 1856; "G.[racillaria] taxi H.-S." — Frey, H., 1856: 234-235. An unjustified emendation of Gracilaria taxella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855, and a junior subjective synonym of Zelleria hepariella Stainton, 1849 (Yponomeutidae), synonymized by De Prins & De Prins (2005: 391).

terminella Walker, 1864; "Gracilaria [sic] terminella." — Walker, F., 1864: 855-856. Type locality: Australia, Sydney. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae by Meyrick (1915a: 325). Present generic combination: Anatrachyntis terminella (Walker, 1864).

timia Diakonoff, 1955; "Acrocercops timia spec. nov." — Diakonoff, A., 1955: 90, figs. 799, 800. Type locality: New Guinea, Araucaria Camp, 800 m. Transferred to Cosmopterigidae as an unplaced species (see Sinev 2002: 159).

urticicolella Ghesquière, 1940; "Lithocolletis urticicolella n. sp." — Ghesquière, J., 1940: 20-21. Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo, Kivu, valley of river Loso. Type specimens: Holotype ♂, RMCA; Paratype 1 specimen in bad condition, without head, thorax and abdomen, RMCA. Transferred to Tischeriidae by De Prins & De Prins (2005: 391). Current generic combination: Tischeria urticicolella (Ghesquière, 1940).

zophosema Turner, 1947; "Phyllocnistis zophosema n. sp." — Turner, A. J., 1947: 72. Type locality: [Australia], Tasmania, Mt. Wellington, 2500 ft. Transferred to Elachistidae (see Nielsen 1996: 96). Present generic combination: Cosmiotes zophosema (Turner, 1947).

zulella Walsingham, 1881; "Lithocolletis zulella, n. s." — Walsingham, Lord (T. de Grey), 1881: 277; pl. 13, fig. 44. Type locality: South Africa. Transferred to Tineidae (see Walsingham 1891c: 130). Present generic combination: Oxymachaeris zulella (Walsingham, 1881).

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Acknowledgements

We kindly acknowledge the courtesy of the TMSA, MHNG, ZIN and ZSM for allowing us to photograph the specimens deposited in their collections.

We cordially thank Nikola Rahme for providing the picture of Phyllocnistis which is shown in the banner.

We cordially thank our lepidopterist colleagues, who have contributed in various ways to the present online catalogue:

Agassiz, David (The Natural History Museum, London), for the invaluable help in checking some of the original descriptions and for his efforts in retrieving hard to find original descriptions.

Arévalo Maldonado, Helber Adrian (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) for images of Caloptilia camaronae (Zeller, 1877) and his interest in the Neotropical Caloptilia species

Bálint, Zsolt (Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest), for retrieving some hard to find entomological literature, and his invaluable help during our visit to the Hungarian Natural History Museum and access to the collection.

Baryshnikova, Svetlana (Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg), for providing the descriptions of some species from the Far East Region and additional information on Russian Gracillariidae, and for invaluable help during our visit to the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and access to the collection.

Bengtsson, Bengt Åke for photographs of Phyllonorycter apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) and other useful information.

Bippus, Maik (La Réunion) for images, host plant and distribution information on species from La Réunion.

Buszko, Jaroslaw (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń), for stimulating conversations and correspondance, and for providing literature.

Dall'Asta, Ugo (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren), for interesting conversations, advice and assistance during several expeditions to Africa.

De Meyer, Marc (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren), for interesting conversations and advice.

Deschka, Gerfried (Steyr), for stimulating conversations and providing literature.

Dombrowsky, Barbara (The Transvaal Museum, Pretoria), for invaluable help during our visits to the Transvaal Museum and easy access to the collection.

Ellis, Willem (Library of the Dutch Entomological Society, Amsterdam), for help in searching hundreds of bibliographical references.

Gielis, Cees (National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden), for stimulating conversations and for access to his private library.

Guglielmi, Jocelyne (Entomological Library of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris), for the kind assistance in finding some of the original descriptions.

Hall, Peter (Amateur Entomologists’ Society, UK), for genitalia images of British Gracillariidae.

Hancock, Geoff (Hunterian Museum, Glasgow) for images and information on the holotype of Tinea stigmatella Fabricius ((Fabricius, 1781).

Harvey, Julie (Entomological Library of the Natural History Museum, London), for the kind assistance in finding some of the original descriptions.

Karsholt, Ole (Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen), for sending us photocopies of original descriptions particularly by Thunberg.

Karvonen, Jaakko (Oulu), for his help in retrieving some type specimens.

Koster, Sjaak (National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden), for stimulating conversations and demonstrating preparation techniques of genitalia.

Krüger, Martin (The Ditsong Museum, Pretoria), for invaluable help during our visits to the Transvaal Museum and easy access to the collection.

Kumata, Tosio (Hokkaido University, Sapporo), for providing literature, exchange of specimens, and interesting discussions.

Kun, András (Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest), for retrieving some hard to find entomological literature.

Kuroko, Hiroshi (Ōsaka Prefectural University), for providing entomological literature.

Kuznetzov, Vladimir (Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg), for providing literature.

Landry, Bernard (Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Genève), for providing the Lepidoptera distribution lists of California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Québec, South Carolina, and Vermont, and for stimulating conversations and advice.

Landry, Jean-François (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa), for sending us a photocopy of the list of the Lepidoptera of Maine by Brower, stimulating conversations and advice.

Louette, Michel (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren), for his support and advice.

Metzler, Eric (The Ohio Survey of Lepidoptera, Columbus), for his kind permission to refer to an unpublished list of the Lepidoptera of Ohio and for providing literature.

Minet, Joël (Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris), for invaluable help during our visits to the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.

Nishihara, Kayoko (Nagoya), for producing a number of photocopies of old original descriptions from Japanese authors and kindly translating some of these texts.

Pitkin, Brian (The Natural History Museum, London), for interesting correspondence and advice.

Riddiford, Nick (Schoolton, Fair Isle) for sharing data and image on Phyllonorycter apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) in the British Isles.

Robinson, Gaden (The Natural History Museum, London), for invaluable help during our visits to the Natural History Museum, stimulating conversations and advice.

Sato, Hiroaki (Nara Women's University, Nara), for reprints and photocopies of publications and exchange of specimens.

Szöcs, Levente (NARIC, Mátrafüred) for information on Gracillariidae parasitoids.

Segerer, Andreas (ZSM) for the image of Parornix atripalpella Wahlström, 1979.

Sinev, Sergey (Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg), for stimulating conversations and advice and for invaluable assistance during our visit to the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and access to the collection.

Thys van den Audenaerde, Katrien (Central Library of the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren), for the kind assistance in finding some of the original descriptions.

Tshikolovets, Vadim (Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev), for retrieving some hard to find entomological literature.

Tuck, Kevin (The Natural History Museum, London), for invaluable help during our visits to the Natural History Museum, stimulating conversations and advice.

Tweehuysen, Godard (Library of the Dutch Entomological Society, Amsterdam), for help in searching hundreds of bibliographical references.

Ulenberg, Sandrine (Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam), for stimulating conversations and access to the collection.

van der Wolf, Hugo (Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam), for stimulating conversations.

van Nieukerken, Erik (National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden), for stimulating conversations.

van Oorschot, Harry (Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam), for providing us the photocopies on fossil species.

Vande Walle, Aurel (Entomological Library of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels), for searching hundreds of bibliographical references.

Vandenbosch, Myriam (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren), for assistance in searching online library catalogues.

Vári, Lajos (The Transvaal Museum, Pretoria), for stimulating conversations and correspondence.

Viette, Pierre (Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris), for the information related to species in Madagascar.

Vretblad, Lena (Uppsala University Library), for the kind assistance in finding some of the original descriptions.

Young, Mark (Oldmeldrum), for information on Gracillariidae from the UK and Phyllonorycter apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) in particular.

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